What is Blockchain, Why is it so Popular and How it Works?

What is Blockchain?

Blockchain Technology is generating a buzz globally. Most times, humans use Blockchain and cryptocurrency as synonyms. However, that is shifting at a swift rate. Increasingly, people are realizing that the decentralization and transparency that comes along with the blockchain technological know-how can affect multiple industries and enhance their processes.

What is Blockchain, Why is it so Popular and How it Works?
What is Blockchain, Why is it so Popular and How it Works?

In less difficult terms, Blockchain is the technology at the back of cryptocurrencies. Think of the blockchain as the storehouse that holds information about all crypto transactions. What makes the blockchain even popular is the reality that it’s on hand to everyone.

In short, a blockchain is a list of statistics files that work as a decentralized digital ledger. The information is geared up into blocks, which are chronologically arranged and secured with the aid of cryptography.

The earliest model of a blockchain was once created in the early Nineteen Nineties (1990s) when computer scientist Stuart Haber and physicist W. Scott Stornetta employed cryptographic techniques in a chain of blocks as a way to tightly closed digital archives from statistics tampering.

The work of Haber and Stornetta clearly inspired the work of many other computer scientists and cryptography lovers - which sooner or later lead to the advent of Bitcoin, as the first decentralized digital money device (or definitely the first cryptocurrency).

Why Blockchain is so Popular?

While the social understanding of blockchain is strongly related to Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, the financial thing is simply the tip of the iceberg, one of the feasible uses.

This new technology is very promising with implications that go ways beyond cryptocurrencies, it is doubtlessly disruptive for dozens of industries and it has already attracted thousands and thousands of dollars of funding with several initiatives beneath development.

Let’s start from the example of cryptocurrencies: there is a blockchain that works as a disbursed ledger of transactions and a token, called Bitcoin, that is divisible and serves as a unit of account and imply of exchange.

In the case of the Bitcoin network, the prevalent grasp of tokens is more often than not related to currency, we naturally have a tendency to assign an economic cost to every Bitcoin.

The key point is that a token on the blockchain can represent anything: it is viable to enhance blockchain-based systems where tokens symbolize any piece of information, like a digital certificates of possession (such as a residence or a share in a company), a certificates of credit, a Kilowatt of energy, a vote for the duration of the elections, patents, records about the starting place of products, directions for an algorithm, the identification for an IoT device, etc.

The programmable and open points of the blockchain allow to innovate and definitely rebuild structures in many fields, dramatically reducing the stage of bureaucracy and making the entire methods notably more efficient and transparent.

Blockchain may want to be used to prevent fraud, to avoid the use of intermediaries, for land registry, for stock alternate and asset management (record the buying and selling orders and property of securities), for insurance plan claims, digital payments and many others. Major banks have already invested thousands and thousands to improve platforms to clear transactions the usage of blockchain systems.

Blockchain is so vital due to the fact opens a new world of possibilities, with numerous application and high disruption potential.

How Blockchain Works and its Real-life Applications?

A transaction is propagated (flooded) the usage of a flooding protocol to peers that validate the transaction based on predetermined criteria. Usually, greater than one node is required to verify the transaction.

Once the transaction is validated, it is protected in a block, which is then propagated onto the network. At this point, the transaction is considered confirmed. Blockchain works with an allotted consensus model that allows blockchain to run as an allotted ledger besides the want for some central, unifying authority pronouncing what transactions are valid and which ones are not.

If a majority of the nodes come to a consensus that the history and signature are valid, the new block of transactions is time-honored into the ledger and a new block is delivered to the chain of transactions. If a majority does no longer concede to the addition or modification of the ledger entry, it is denied and now not introduced to the chain.

In the context of cryptocurrencies, a blockchain consists of a steady chain of blocks, each one storing a list of previously proven transactions. Since the blockchain community is maintained via a myriad of computer systems spread around the world, it functions as a decentralized database (or ledger). This capacity that every participant (node) keeps a replica of the blockchain data, and they speak with every different to make certain that they are all on the identical page (or block).

Therefore, blockchain transactions appear inside a peer-to-peer world community and this is what makes Bitcoin decentralized digital forex that is borderless, censorship-resistant. In addition, most blockchain systems are considered trustless because they do no longer require any type of trust. There is no single authority in the manipulating of Bitcoin.

A central phase of almost every blockchain is the procedure of mining, which depends on hashing algorithms. Bitcoin uses the SHA-256 algorithm (Secure hash algorithm 256 bits). It takes an input of any size and generates an output that will always have an equal length. The output produced is called a "hash" and, in this case, is continually made of sixty-four characters (256bits).

So the equal enter will end result in the same output, no remember how many times the system is repeated. But if a small trade is made to the input, the output will alternate completely. As such, hash functions are deterministic, and in the cryptocurrency world, most of them are designed as a one-way hash function.

Being a one-way function means that it is nearly not possible to calculate what was the input from the output. One can solely bet what the input was, but the odds of guessing it right is extraordinarily low. This is one of the motives for why Bitcoin's blockchain is secure.

Now that we recognize what the algorithm does, let's demonstrate how a blockchain works with a simple instance of a transaction.

Imagine that we have Alice and Bob along with their Bitcoin balance. Let's say Alice owes Bob 2 Bitcoins.

For Alice to ship Bob that 2 bitcoin, Alice pronounces a message with the transaction that she wants to make to all the miners in the network.

In that transaction, Alice offers the miners Bob's address and the number of Bitcoins she would like to send, alongside with a digital signature and her public key. The signature is made with Alice's personal key and the miners can validate that Alice, in fact, is the owner of these coins.

Once the miners are positive that the transaction is legitimate they can put it in a block alongside with many different transactions and strive to mine the block. This is completed by way of putting the block thru the SHA-256 algorithm. The output desires to begin with a positive quantity on 0's in order to be considered valid. The amount of 0's wished depends on what's referred to as the "difficulty" which changes relying on how much computing energy there is on the network.

In order to produce an output hash with the favored amount of 0's in the beginning, the miners add what's called a "nonce" into the block before jogging it thru the algorithm. Since a small exchange to the input definitely modifications the output, the miners strive random nonces until they locate a valid output hash.

Once the block is mined the miner pronounces that newly mined block to all the different miners. They then test to make positive that the block is legitimate so that they can add it to their reproduction of the blockchain and the transaction is complete. But in the block, the miners additionally want to consist of the output hash from the preceding block so that all blocks are tied together, for this reason, the name blockchain. This is a vital phase because of the way trust works in the system.

Every miner has their own reproduction of the blockchain on their computer and everybody trusts whichever blockchain that has the most computational work put into it, the longest blockchain. If minor modifications a transaction in a previous block, the output hash for that block will exchange which leads to all the hashes after it altering as well due to the blocks being preferred with hashes. The miner would have to redo all of the work in order to make everyone take delivery of he's blockchain as the right one. So if a miner desired to cheat he would want greater than 50% of the network's computing strength which is very unlikely. Network attacks like this are thereby referred to like 51% attacks.

The mannequin of making computer systems work in order to produce blocks is known as Proof-of-Work (PoW) there are also different models like Proof-of-Stake (PoS) which does now not require as plenty computing electricity and is supposed to require less electricity while being capable to scale to extra users.

Blockchain technological know-how has the practicable to disrupt and improve many industries and traditionally centralized systems. However, earlier than it can end up a real, conceivable choice to its centralized counterparts, blockchains need to be able to scale and process transactions at speeds way above its cutting-edge capabilities. The variety one hindrance of blockchains is scalability. Put simply, it is hard for blockchains to develop and guide growing numbers of transactions. In order to visualize this, Visa and Mastercard can procedure heaps of transactions per second while Bitcoin can only procedure about 7 transactions per second. It is clear that options must be introduced to similarly decorate the skills of blockchains.

Sharding is an achievable answer to blockchain scaling. It has the plausible to enlarge the throughput and exchange the way networks validate blocks — all the completed transactions that are permanently recorded in the blockchain. Horizontal scaling is the most vital feature of sharding among all on-chain scaling solutions.

Sharding is a kind of database partitioning that separates very giant databases into smaller, faster, more without difficulty managed parts referred to as records shards. Applied to a blockchain, it skills that the device may want to scale as more nodes are added to it.

Some projects are also working on the thought of the nodes being run independently in fashionable off-the-shelf hardware, consequently accomplishing true decentralization while additionally solving the scalability problem. A mission I comprehend of that is working on the latter component is Shardus, based out of Dallas, Texas.

The Shardus task ambitions to construct novel allotted ledger technological know-how which incorporates sharding and auto-scaling to grant excessive throughput, low latency, and on the spot finality whilst retaining the very best level of decentralization and safety possible. The technological know-how being developed will use compute and nation sharding to accommodate billions of every day lively users, allowing for global-scale decentralized applications. The key aspects which make this possible are the Unblocked Sharded Ledger and the Unblocked Consensus Algorithm which is based on Proof-of-Quorum. 

Below are some of the real-life functions of blockchain technology:

Real Estate

The immutability and openness of Blockchain have made it a perfect preference for the real property industry as bureaucracy can be easily manipulated and forged.

Smart contracts

Smart contracts are currently used via a number of industries and are lowering the dependency on preferred prison contracts.

Retail loyalty rewards

Blockchain simplifies the transfers from one loyalty program to some other whilst reducing waste and frauds that are commonly existing in paper and card-based reward programs.

Digital voting

By combining the convenience of digital vote casting with the immutability of the blockchain, the entire vote casting manner will become transparent and trusted.

And 17 other Applications of Blockchain Technology are:

  1. Asset Management: Trade Processing and Settlement
  2. Insurance: Claims processing
  3. Payments: Cross-Border Payments
  4. Unconventional money lenders/ difficult cash lending
  5. Your car/ smartphone
  6. Blockchain Internet-of-Things (IoT)
  7. Smart Appliances
  8. Supply Chain Sensors
  9. Blockchain Healthcare
  10. Blockchain music
  11. Blockchain Government
  12. Public value/ community
  13. Vested responsibility
  14. Blockchain Identity
  15. Passports
  16. Birth, wedding, and demise certificates
  17. Personal Identification 


  1. This is well written and easier to understand what it is. I tend to get confused. Good job.

  2. This is very interesting. I’ll have to look into it some more.

  3. it is good to know that it can be applied to function such as a retail loyalty rewards !

  4. This is very informative. Today's technology is really evolving,


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